Growth rate: Slow.
Mature Size: 1-3' high and wide.
Flowers: Small, bright orange or yellow, in flat-topped clusters.
Bloom: Spring, summer and fall.
Fruit: Seed pod.
Leaves: Narrow, pointed, smooth-edged, green, 1.5-2" long.
Stems: No thorns. Single stem when young. Older plants grow
multiple stems from single tuber. Does not have milky white sap of
Roots: Deep, tuberous taproot. Does not transplant once established.
Wildlife: Attracts butterflies. Caterpillar food plant for Gray Hairstreak,
Monarch, and Queen butterflies.
Toxic / Danger: Sap of entire plant and roots are mildly poisonous.
Origin: North America.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 4-9.
Heat tolerant: Yes.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Water once established: Once or twice a month.
Soil: Well drained, dry, sandy to gravelly, low in nutrients,
pH 5.6-7.5 (acidic to neutral).
Sun: Full sun to part shade.
Planting: Slow to establish, may take up to three years.
Prune: Deadheading spent blooms triggers another bloom cycle
about a month later.
Pests: Prone to aphids.
Propagation: Seed. Germination rate is moderate and many seedlings fail.
Mulch: After leaf drop, mulch young plants in regions prone to freezes.
Uses: Ornamental. Butterfly attractor.
A Queen Butterfly is shown at right.
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