Leaf retention: Deciduous.
Growth rate: Moderate to rapid.
Mature Size: 5-10' tall and wide.
Flowers: Yellow, orange and red petals with long red stamens.
Bloom: Spring, summer, and fall.
Fruit: Seed pods which open unexpectedly, scattering bean-like seeds.
Leaves: Small, green leaflets.
Stems: Sharp thorns.
Roots: A nitrogen-fixing legume*.
Wildlife: Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds.
Toxic / Danger: Thorns. The seeds are toxic. The rest of the plant is mildly poisonous.
Origin: Central America, Caribbean.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 8b-12. This plant may die to the ground in zones 8b-9a and recover from
its roots in the spring.
Heat tolerant: Yes.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Full sun. A southern exposure is needed in zones 8b-9a.
Water once established: Once or twice a month to weekly depending upon appearance.
Soil: Well drained, pH 6.1-8.5 (slightly acidic to alkaline). *Do not use a nitrogen fertilizer.
Mulch: Heavily in fall to protect roots where winter freezes occur.
Prune: Remove winter damage after the last frost. Some gardeners cut this plant to the ground
in late fall and allow it to regrow from its roots in the spring.
Litter: Low: seeds and empty seedpods.
This plant is a member of the Legume family (Fabaceae). The cultivated variety
'Phoenix Bird' has pure yellow flowers without a trace of red. The butterfly in the picture
is a Pipevine Swallowtail
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Latest update: January, 2019.