A member of the Citrus family. Modern citrus fruits, according to genetic analysis,
are complex hybrids arising from mandarin, pummelo, citron and pepeda ancestors,
refined by more than four thousand years of cultivation.
Mandarins, known for their thin, loose peels and sweet flavor, are often
classified into groups based on where they were developed, such as
Mediterranean, King (Indonesia and the Philippines) and Satsuma (Japan).
There are hundreds, if not thousands of mandarin cultivars. The word tangerine,
originally designating mandarins from Tangiers, Morocco, is used now to describe
all mandarins or just selected cultivars.
Lifespan: 20-30 productive years.
Leaf retention: Evergreen.
Growth rate: Moderate.
Mature Size: 9-15' high and as wide.
Flowers: Five narrow, white petals, long white, yellow-tipped stamens,
fragrant, from red-tinged buds.
Bloom: Late winter and/or spring. Some cultivars tend to bloom more
in alternate years.
Self-fruitful: Some are self-pollinating, except Clementine and Minneola need a
second compatible cultivar nearby for pollination.
Years before fruiting: 3-4 for trees with grafted rootstocks.
Fruit: Orange, thin peel often loose or easily
removed, smaller and less round, sweeter, less acidic and stronger flavor
than the typical orange.
Months for fruit to ripen: 12. Mandarins do not ripen further
once picked and must be left on the tree until ripe. Some cultivars
must be fully colored to be ripe, others can be light green
(especially Satsumas). To tell if the fruit are ripe, one must be removed
from the tree and tasted. It is ripe when sweet. If sour,
they need to stay on the tree longer. Rainfall, sunlight, and temperature determine
ripening times and will vary from year to year. Leaving the fruit on the
tree after ripening will cause it to become sweeter as acidity is
Remove fruit from the tree using clippers, cutting the stem close to
the fruit. Pulling a fruit from the stem will tear a gap in the skin.
Storage after harvest: Mandarins can be refrigerated up to six weeks.
They can be kept at room temperature one week.
Leaves: Dark green, glossy, lance-shaped.
Stems: Slender, sometimes thorny.
Roots: Usually grafted onto a hardy rootstock appropriate for a
particular region's soil and climate.
Cultivars of Note:
'Clementine' a small hybrid of mandarin and sweet orange.
'Changsha' one of the most cold-hardy of all sweet citrus.
'Dancy' a commercially grown tangerine, seedy.
'Gold Nugget' seedless, excellent flavor, medium-sized tree,
'Mandarinquat' a cross between Dancy mandarin and a
Nagami kumquat, twice as large as a kumquat, somewhat seedy.
'Ortanique' / 'Tangor' a mandarin and sweet orange cross with a
unique flavor. Also known as Temple Orange.
'Owari' a Satsuma type originating in Japan, cold-hardy,
'Ponkan' most widely grown throughout world, seedy, mild flavor,
medium-sized tree, vigorous, less cold-hardy.
'Tangelo / Minneola / Honeybell' a cross between a mandarin
and either a grapefruit or a pummelo. Not self-pollinating and needs a compatible cultivar
such as 'Sunburst' or 'Temple' as a pollenizer.
Wildlife: Attracts bees and birds.
Toxic / Danger: Thorns on some cultivars.
Origin: China and Southeast Asia.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 8b-11 after three years in the ground.
7b-10 for 'Changsha' after three years.
Chill hours: None.
Heat tolerant: Yes for Owari. Most cultivars prefer temperatures below
Sun: Full sun. Tolerates part shade. Afternoon shade helps when
temperatures are over 90°F.
Drought tolerant: Somewhat, after three years, but not without damage
to fruit crop.
Water after becoming established: Weekly between June and September,
allowing for rain. The top one inch of soil should dry out, but do not allow soil to become completely dry.
Water may be needed more frequently in the hottest months of the year. Young trees need water more often
than older trees even though older trees need more water in total.
A sign of insufficient water is leaves turning dull and curling inward from the edges.
Soil: Well drained, low salinity, pH 6-7.5 (slightly acidic to neutral).
A pH of 6.5 is ideal. Alkaline soil may result in iron deficiency. Poorly draining
soil results in root rot and poor performance.
Fertilize: Do not fertilize the first two years.
Apply an organic fertilizer every month from mid-February to early October. Use a citrus micronutrient
solution three times a year in February, May and August. Do not fertilize after October to keep the plant
from producing new growth that will be harmed by early frost.
Mulch: In spring, remove previous year's mulch and put down a new layer of
organic mulch to reduce water loss and reduce weeds. Keep at least 6" away from trunk to avoid collar rot.
Planting: May be grown in large containers.
First Year Care: Remove all fruit, if any, when first planted.
Remove all fruit developing in first three years so plant will direct energy to growing roots, branches
and leaves. Water weekly between June and September, allowing for rain.
The top few inches of soil can dry out, but do not allow soil to become completely dry.
Prune: Do not prune until spring because leaves store their maximum food
in mid winter and pruning then will reduce flowering and fruit set.
In spring, remove excess young fruit during heavy set years. Remove weeds above
roots by hand-pulling, not with tools that can damage shallow roots.
When shaping into a tree, unshaded trunks and branches should be painted with white tree
trunk paint to protect against sunscald.
Litter: Leaves throughout the year, mostly during flowering. Flower and
fruit drop in spring and summer as tree self-regulates the number of fruit it
Propagation: Seed, cuttings.
Giant Swallowtail Butterfly caterpillar. This larvae resembles
bird poop and has white and black and/or brown splotches. On a large plant it will cause no harm.
On a small plant, relocate it to a large citrus.
Leaf wrinkling in the summer may be due to thrips, leaf miners, Asian citrus psyllids, or heat. If you do
not see scars on the leaf, it is probably due to heat and watering should be increased. This form of leaf
wrinkling is most often found on Mandarins as opposed to other citrus.
See Citrus: Diseases and Disorders
Uses: Fruit, ornamental, shade.
Seedless cultivars are available.
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