Form: Multi-stemmed, long-lived shrub.
Leaf retention: Evergreen USDA zones 9-11. Flowers and terminal
parts of branches damaged, and first year seedlings severely damaged,
Growth rate: Slow to moderate depending on water.
Mature Size: 6-8' high and wide.
Flowers: Male and female on different plants, male flowers are
tiny, greenish-yellow, clustered. Female flowers are small, greenish,
usually solitary at leaf nodes.
Bloom: Early winter into spring, or spring into summer,
depending on local climate.
Fruit: With male plants present, acorn-shaped, thin fleshy capsule
appears, usually containing one large, dark brown seed. Seed contains
an oily, liquid wax, indigestible.
Leaves: Dull green, oval, in upward-pointing pairs.
Stems: No thorns. Dense, rigid branches, somewhat irregular.
Roots: One to several very deep taproots, may exceed 30' deep.
Wildlife: Browsed by mammals, especially goats.
Toxic / Danger: The pollen is a mild allergen. Seed meal toxic to
many mammals. Seeds have laxative effect in humans, poisonous in large
Origin: Southwestern North America.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 8b-11.
Heat tolerant: Yes.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Full sun. Leggy in shade.
Water once established: Monthly.
Soil: Well drained, pH 5.6-9.0 (acidic to highly alkaline).
Prune: To shape.
Propagation: Seed or cuttings.
Uses: Xeric garden, hedge, seeds used for oil, medicine.
Another common name is Goatnut.
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