Form: A clump-forming herb.
Lifespan: Three to four years.
Leaf retention: Evergreen.
Growth rate: Moderate.
Mature Size: 1' high and 3-5' wide.
Flowers: Daisy-like, at the terminal end of a stem, with yellow rays having squared tips with two
notches, and a yellow to orange center, fragrant.
Bloom: Sporadically, all year in regions without freezes.
Fruit: Hairy seed within dried the flower head.
Leaves: Green, linear, surrounding the base of the plant, with an unpleasant odor when crushed.
Stems: No thorns. Unbranched, leafless flower stems.
Roots: A taproot makes transplanting difficult.
Wildlife: Attracts insects, sometimes butterflies. Rabbit and deer resistant.
Toxic / Danger: No.
Origin: Alberta, Saskatchewan, western United States minus Washington and Oregon, into Mexico.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 5b-11. This plant dies to the ground in hard freezes.
Heat tolerant: Yes, but it has difficulty in temperatures over 105°F.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Full sun, but part shade, especially afternoon shade, is needed in high temperatures.
Water after becoming established: Monthly. It withstands frequent watering in very well drained soil
but root rot can occur if the soil stays moist.
Soil: Well drained, dry, low in organic content, pH 6.1-7.8 (slightly acidic to slightly alkaline).
Mulch: Not necessary and may be detrimental when the soil is subjected to frequent watering.
Gravel is better than organic mulch.
Prune: Remove spent flower heads to improve appearance.
Propagation: Seed. This plant may self-seed.
Uses: Ornamental, xeric garden.
This plant is a member of the Aster family (Compositae). The plant genus, Tetraneuris, is
sometimes referred to as Bitterweed. Another common name for this plant is Perky Sue. The
butterfly is a Fatal Metalmark.
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Latest update: January, 2019.