Leaf retention: Evergreen.
Growth rate: Moderate to fast.
Mature Size: 2' high and 2-4' wide.
Flowers: Vivid purple, tiny, in hemispherical clusters.
Bloom: Spring and summer.
Leaves: Dark green, toothed, pointed, with a rough surface that is unpleasant to
Stems: No thorns.
Roots: This plant spreads by rhizomes. It can perform erosion control in low salt
Wildlife: Attracts butterflies and bees.
Toxic / Danger: No.
Origin: South America. Naturalized in the southeastern United States.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 7-10. This plant dies to the ground in freezes.
Heat tolerant: It needs part shade in hot climates.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Part shade.
Water after becoming established: Once or twice a month.
Soil: Well drained, pH 6.1-7.5 (slightly acidic to slightly alkaline). This plant is
tolerant of soil types but is very saline sensitive and the presence of salt results in leaf
margin burn and possible death.
Prune: If it looks raggedy, cut it to the ground and it will regrow quickly. Cut
to the ground late winter after the danger of freezing is past.
Propagation: Seed, cuttings, root division.
This plant is a member of the Verbena family (Verbenaceae). It can be invasive in moist,
temperate climates with low saline levels in soil and water.
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Latest update: February, 2019.