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Growing Moringa: Moringa oleifera

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Overview
The Moringaceae family has one genus, Moringa, with 13 species. Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated, grown throughout the tropics, as a multipurpose food tree. More than 70 cultivars (cultivated varieties) have been developed in India.

Description
Form: Tree.
Lifespan: 4-40 years, depending on cultivar.
Leaf retention: Cold deciduous.
Growth rate: Rapid, usually 10' a year. Can grow 20' a year in favorable conditions.
Mature Size: 32-40' high.
Flowers: Small, yellow-white, sweetly fragrant, clustered. The flowers and buds are edible, but act as a diuretic in large amounts.
Bloom: Twice a year or more in non-freezing regions. Late fall to early winter and late spring to early summer.
Self-fruitful: Yes.
Years before fruiting: Fruits first year. Flowers appear 8 months after planting.
Fruit: A very long, slender, ribbed pod containing round, edible seeds. Young small seedpods can be used raw in salads or cooked like green beans. Older green pods, with the outer stringy coat scraped off, need longer cooking and have an asparagus taste.
Dried mature seeds are dark brown, round, with 3 white wings and are composed of 38-40% oil. Pressing the seeds produces a non-drying, clear, odorless oil called Ben Oil, used for cooking and as a machine lubricant. The inedible seed cake remaining after oil extraction is used as a plant fertilizer.
For some cultivars, the fruit is bitter and inedible in later years, causing them to be grown as an annual.
Months for fruit to ripen: 2-4, depending on cultivar.
Storage after harvest: Store mature pods in a dry space.
Leaves: The green, oval leaflets are edible. Used raw in salads, they taste similar to watercress or radicchio. Lightly cooked and added to chili, omelets, stew or soup, they taste like a nutty flavored spinach. While they contain oxalates, the oxalates are non-soluble, cannot contribute to kidney stones, and provide flavor without impairing health.
The leaves have seven times the Vitamin C of oranges, four times the vitamin A of carrots, three times the potassium of bananas, at least twice the calcium of milk and two times the protein of yogurt.
The tree provides light to light-medium shade.
Stems: No thorns. New stems are slender and brittle, but become stronger in succeeding years. The trunk, with whitish-gray, corky bark, becomes more cold hardy with age. The wood is too weak for construction but is good firewood. A blue dye can be made from the sap.
Roots: Large taproot. The thick roots are edible and are a substitute for horseradish. The tree is prone to root rot in waterlogged soil.
Cultivars of Note:
'PKM-1' Provides the largest yield of leaves and seedpods in the shortest time period. Grown as an annual and harvested roots and all. Developed by Periyakulam Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu.
'PKM-2' Provides more lateral branching for better leaf access, fatter seed pods with fewer seeds and a longer lifespan than PKM-1. Requires more water. Also developed by Periyakulam Horticultural College and Research Institute.
Wildlife: Attracts bees, butterflies, mammals.
Toxic / Danger: The bark is mildly poisonous to humans. Eating more than two dried seeds can induce a laxative effect.
Origin: Southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwest India. In use more than 4000 years.

Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 9-10. Protect from freezes. The plant will regrow from the roots if well mulched. May lose leaves below 40°F.
Chill hours: None.
Heat tolerant: Yes, to 118°F.
Sun: Full sun.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Water after becoming established: Monthly. No water except rainfall needed after 2 years unless being used as a food source.
Soil: Very tolerant of any well drained soil, but does better in sandy soil with moderate organic content, pH 6.3-7.0 (slightly acidic to neutral).
Fertilize: Unnecessary because of rapid growth.
Mulch: Deeply in fall to protect roots from freezes.
Planting: Plant as soon as possible after the last frost in late winter or early spring so roots will have time to become well established before the next winter freeze.
The young seedlings must be protected by 18" high chicken wire (or stronger) fencing so they will not be eaten by rabbits and other wild critters.
Can be grown in pots and moved inside in winter.
First Year Care: When growing as an edible leaf source, pinch off the top leader branch when the sapling is two feet tall. This will encourage side branching and produce more leaves within reach. As an edible seedpod source, it is often pulled up at the end of the year and new seeds planted in the spring.
Prune: When used as an edible leaf source, cut the main trunk to a three foot stump every spring to keep tree height under control for leaf harvesting. When used as an ornamental, do not prune until the first winter, then cut off all branches above head height to encourage branching and a wider tree form. After the last freeze in spring, cut off any dead wood.
Litter: Leaf and seedpod drop in fall.
Propagation: Seed, air layering. Refrigerating or freezing seed will kill it. The seed should be planted in loose, well-draining soil and watered daily. It will often sprout in one week and should be watered daily until the trunk becomes woody. The seed can be grown in a seed starter kit and then transplanted after attaining a 3" height.
Uses: A shade tree or food source. As a shade tree, it will attain a 40' height within four years with a trunk up to 1.5' in diameter. It can be used to create shade for other trees and plants.
Many parts of the plant are edible, especially the highly nutritious leaves. Teas made from the flowers or leaves have medicinal uses. Cuttings and branches are used as livestock feed. In commercial cultivation, the trees are used to produce either leaves or seedpods, but not both.

Comments
Other common names are Miracle Tree, Horseradish Tree and Drumstick Tree.



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Moringa: Moringa oleifera - flowers

Moringa: Moringa oleifera - fruit

Moringa: Moringa oleifera - leaves

Moringa: Moringa oleifera



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