A member of the Dogbane family. Not related to true Plums, which belong to the Rose family.
Form: Shrub or small tree.
Leaf retention: Evergreen.
Growth rate: Moderate.
Mature Size: 1-3' high and 3-6' wide, depending on cultivar.
In native region, grows 18-20' high.
Flowers: White, five narrow, thick waxy petals, 2" diameter, fragrance
similar to orange blossoms.
Bloom: Spring and summer. In some regions, plants will bloom and display
fruit most of the year.
Self-fruitful: Yes. May need hand pollination.
Years before fruiting: 2.
Fruit: Red, plum-shaped, 1-3" diameter, 6-16 small seeds, entire fruit
edible when ripe, tasting like sweet cranberries, strawberries or raspberries,
depending on degree of ripeness. There is a latex overtone to the flavor because these plants have
not been bred to lose latex from ripe fruit.
Months for fruit to ripen: 3. Fruit is ripe when pink or red, not green,
and slightly soft to touch. The fruits ripen individually and not all at once.
They remain on plant after ripening.
Storage after harvest: One day at room temperature, no more than one week
refrigerated. Fruit does not ripen further once picked.
Leaves: Glossy dark green, thick, oval, smooth margins, overlapping.
Stems: Thornless or Y-shaped double spines, milky latex sap if broken or cut.
Roots: Fibrous, extensive, non-invasive. Prostrate varieties suitable for
Wildlife: Attracts insects.
Toxic / Danger: All parts, except ripe fruit, are mildly toxic; spines
on some cultivars.
Origin: Natal region of South Africa.
Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: 9b-11. Young plants need protection below 30°F.
established plants survive 25°F.
Chill hours: None.
Heat tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Full sun to part shade. Most cultivars sold in nurseries today
do best in part shade.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Water after becoming established: Monthly to weekly depending
on size of fruit crop and temperature. Soil must dry out between waterings.
Soil: Well drained, tolerant otherwise, pH 6.1-7.5 (slightly acidic to
neutral). Tolerant of salinity. Subject to root rot in wet soil.
Fertilize: In soil with low organic content, after first year,
apply compost mid to late winter before new growth begins.
Mulch: 1-2" organic material to shade roots from summer heat.
Planting: Can be grown in a container.
First Year Care: Water every day or two to establish an extensive root system.
Do not overwater.
Prune: Often pruned into narrow hedge to make fruit more accessible.
After last frost, remove any dead or damaged branches. Flowers appear on new growth.
Propagation: Cuttings, layering, seed. Seeds are variable in germination
times and may not breed true.
Uses: Ornamental, prostrate varieties serve as erosion control on mild slopes,
edible fruit: raw in salads or cooked into jams and pies. Do not cook in aluminum cookware
because of latex particles in fruit.
Former botanical name: Carissa grandiflora. The most common cultivars sold in nurseries
are low shrubs and groundcover plants, both with small thorns. Prostrate varieties can
be used as erosion control on slight slopes.
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