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in Tucson, Phoenix,
Arizona and California

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Growing Wine Grapes: Vitis vinifera

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Overview
A member of the Vitaceae (Grape) family, the Vitis genus is estimated to contain 40-60 species of vining plants, many of them native to North America. Vitis vinifera is the predominate commercially grown grape for fresh eating, wine, and drying for raisins.

Description
Form: Woody climbing vine.
Lifespan: Productive 50-100 years.
Leaf retention: Deciduous.
Growth rate: Moderate to rapid.
Mature Size: 20-25' long.
Flowers: Tiny, greenish, in clusters.
Bloom: Spring or summer, depending on climate and variety.
Self-fruitful: Yes.
Years before fruiting: 2-4.
Fruit: Each flower produces a single grape. Fruit is produced on vines growing from one-year-old canes.
Months for fruit to ripen: 3-4, depending on weather. Grapes are ripe when they have changed color, when they are full size, when a whitish coating has covered them, when they have slightly softened, and when they taste ripe. They do not ripen further after picking.
Storage after harvest: Fully mature grapes, in a perforated plastic bag, will last 2 weeks in a refrigerator.
Leaves: Green, large, usually five lobes.
Stems: No thorns. Climbs using tendrils.
Roots: Vines are usually grafted onto other grape species rootstock that are far more pest resistant.
Cultivars of Note: 'Flame Seedless' and 'Thompson Seedless' are popular in hot desert areas.
Wildlife: Attracts pollinating insects and birds.
Toxic / Danger: No.
Origin: Middle East. Cultivation started more than 4000 years ago.

Cultivation and Uses
USDA hardiness zones: Depends on cultivar. Often 7-9. In zones 7-9a, plant on the side of a hill, never in a valley bottom where cold air can collect.
Chill hours: 100-500, depending on cultivar. Choose a cultivar with a low number for hot desert areas.
Heat tolerant: Yes.
Sun: Full sun.
Drought tolerant: Yes.
Water after becoming established: Monthly, except every two weeks for fruit production or during second year after planting.
Soil: Well drained, deep, fertile, pH 6.5 (between slightly acidic and neutral).
Fertilize: Grapes need less fertilizer than most crops. Soil testing is best to determine if it is necessary. Some growers fertilize as little as once every three years. Nitrogen is the component most often needed, which can be supplied using composed manure.
Mulch: Over roots when freezing temperatures are predicted.
First Year Care: Do not fertilize. Water regularly, but do not over water, to establish a strong root system. Set up a support system such as a trellis or fence before putting the plant in the ground.
Planting: Can be grown in 15-20 gallon containers.
Prune: After leaf drop, and before new buds emerge, cut off canes that have just fruited – these will be two years old. Also remove unsuitable and excess canes so that only two to four of the strongest one-year-old canes remain.
Litter: Leaf drop in fall. Grape litter if not harvested regularly.
Propagation: Cuttings grafted on special rootstock.
Pests: Western Grapeleaf Skeletonizer moth: Harrisina brillians. The larvae, which have five stages, are cream colored in the first two stages, brown in the third, and yellow with two purple and several black rings in the final stages. They eat grape leaves from the underside in the first three stages, then appear on the top of the leaf in the late fourth and fifth stages. They have black, poisonous tufts of hair which cause skin irritation. The larvae can destroy grape plants and should be caught and removed early. The day-flying moths are entirely black with an orange or yellow neck collar. They lay their eggs in clusters on the undersides of grape leaves. It can have as many as three broods a year. Recommended treatments include methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole, and Bacillus thuringiensis (which is only effective against young larvae).
Uses: Ornamental, edible grapes, privacy screen trellis, arbor roof.

Comments
Wine grapes are less cold hardy and less resistant to pests than native North American grapes. For climates with mild summers and cold winters, Vitis labrusca: Fox Grape, a North American native whose best known variety is the Concord Grape, or its hybrids, are preferred.


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Wine Grape: Vitis vinifera - flowers

Wine Grape: Vitis vinifera - fruit

Wine Grape: Vitis vinifera - leaves and tendrils


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